In this particular expedition there were several little children, from some of whom I have gleaned details and happenings. Red Cloud, noticing his shoulder straps, hotly denounced him as the "White Eagle" who had come to steal the road before the Indian said yes or no. Lieutenant Grum­mond, who had so narrowly escaped on the 6th of De­cember, was not yet accounted for, but there was little hope that he had escaped again. One of the officers, Lieutenant Bing­ham, was dead. So, I was glad I happened onto this one. But the conflict foreshadowed the final disastrous confrontation between frontiersman and Indian that ensued on the northern Plains as the westward movement accelerated after the Civil War. The fort and Wagon Box sites are located on secondary roads, and the Fetterman Massacre site is on U.S. 87. Carrington reluctantly acceded to his plea, which indeed he could scarcely have refused, and placed him in charge, giving him strict and positive instructions to "relieve the wood train, drive back the Indians, but on no ac­count to pursue the Indians beyond Lodge Trail Ridge," and that so soon as he had performed this duty he was to return immediately to the fort. The State owns three acres of the probable 25-acre site. The Indians surrounding the wood train were well served by their scouts, and when they found that Fet­terman's force was advancing on the other side of the hill, they immediately withdrew from the wood train, which presently broke corral and made its way to the Piney, some seven miles northwest of the fort, unmo­lested. Grummond had a wife in delicate health at the post, and he was cautioned by the officers to take care not to be led into a trap, although his experience on the 6th, when he had so narrowly escaped death, was, it would seem, the best warning he could have had. advanced farther into the unknown land on the 9th of July. Hunting parties were absolutely forbidden. Perhaps it ill becomes us to censure the dead, but the whole unfortunate affair arose from a direct disobe­dience of orders on the part of Fetterman and his men. No gun could be sent him. . There were at one time only forty rounds per man available. Wood, while not immediately at hand, else the place would not have been practicable of defense without tremendous labor in clearing it, was conveniently adjacent. The army woman in a hostile country risked much more than the men. By that summer the Indians had closed the Bozeman Trail to all but heavily guarded military convoys, but the troops won two victories. His position as quartermaster had kept him on the watch for Indians all the time, and he announced on the day before the battle that he "must have one chance at the Indians before he left." The railroads being in operation for short distances, the only method of transportation was in the huge Conestoga wagon, or prairie schooner which, with its canvas top raking upward fore and aft over a capacious wagon box, looked not unlike the hull of the boat from which it took its name. Meanwhile the work of erecting the fort was contin­ued. Required fields are marked *. The Moun­tain District at that time had but one post in it, Fort Reno, one hundred and sixty miles from Fort Laramie. A messenger was sent to the fort for an ambulance, and the command retired in good order without further sight of the Indians. Another monument, lying in an upland prairie some 1½  miles southwest of Story, marks the location of the Wagon Box Fight, one acre of which is State-owned out of an estimated 40-acre total. Fetterman and Brown, unfortunately were the chief of these malcontents. Fort Phil Kearny was one the reasons for this trip. The shock of horror with which the terrible news was received was greater even than that attendant upon the story of the disastrous bat­tle of the Little Big Horn, ten years later. In the midst of the council, Colonel Henry B. Carrington and 700 men of the 18th Infantry marched into the fort. Spared the circuitous route through Salt Lake City, gold seekers soon poured over the trail, which crossed the heart of the hunting grounds the hostile Sioux had recently seized from the Crow. From it, on the 31st of October, with great ceremony and much rejoicing, the first garrison flag that ever floated over the land was unfurled. The westward-moving tide of civilization had at last pressed back from the Missouri and the Mississippi the Sioux and their allies, the Cheyennes, the largest and most famous of the several great groups of Indians who have disputed the advance of the white man since the days of Columbus, saving perhaps the Creeks and the Iroquois. Nothing remains of the fort, which was located is about one mile west of U.S. 87 and 2½  miles southeast of Story. A little later forty additional men were sent after Ten Eyck. Engi­neers and road builders, as well as emigrants, demanded the protection of the government. In return for the promise of annuities, they agreed to withdraw from the vicinity of emigrant routes and not to attack them. Genre/Form: History Sources: Document Type: Book: ISBN: 0877704333 9780877704331 087770077X 9780877700777: OCLC Number: 16648470: Notes: Includes index. They fully expected the fort to be at­tacked. Indian tipis on the grounds of Fort Phil Kearny, in what is now Johnson County, Wyoming. No Indians appeared in sight on that date. Rarely in the history of the Indian wars of the United States have the Indians, no matter how preponderant in force, conducted a regular siege, Pontiac's investment of Detroit being almost unique in that particular. It proved to be not a reinforcement of troops or ammunition supplies, but two ambulances with two contract surgeons and an escort of eight men, besides Bailey, the guide, and Lieutenant Grummond, who had just been appointed to the Eighteenth Infantry, and his young bride. "—Roundup Magazine In 1865, at Fort Sully, South Dakota, the government concluded treaties with a few Sioux chiefs. Fort Phil Kearny State Historic Site: Historic massacre of US Army troops in 1866 - See 137 traveler reviews, 110 candid photos, and great deals for Sheridan, WY, at Tripadvisor. Wheatley left a wife and children in the fort. At first most of the settlers merely wished to pass through the country and settle in the fair lands upon the other side, but the fer­tility and beauty that met their eyes on every hand irresistibly invited settlement on the journey. Six shots in rapid succession were counted, and immediately after heavy firing was heard from over Lodge Trail Ridge, five miles away, which continued with such fierceness as to indicate a pitched battle. At the same time the government established the sub-post between Laramie and Fort Reno, so earnestly rec­ommended by Carrington, in October, calling it Fort Fetterman, in honor of the unfortunate officer who fell in battle on the list of December. The third pro­jected post was not established. Com - the home page of author Nicholas L. Vulich. This will involve the provision of a resi­ dence and services of the keeper, the same as has just been found necessary for the monument erected at the birthplace of Washington. The troops were armed with newly issued breech-loading Springfield rifles—a costly surprise for the Sioux. . Most of the civilians succeeded in safely reaching the post, but four were trapped with the soldiers in an oval barricade that had been formed earlier as a defensive fortification from the overturned boxes of 14 wood-hauling wagons that had been removed from the running gears. Follow road markers. The site is marked by one side of a stockade, all that survives from a Works Progress Administration (WPA) reconstruction in the 1930s, and a log cabin erected by the Boy Scouts. Ghastly and mutilated remains stripped naked, shot full of arrows—Wheatley with no less than one hundred and five in him, scalped, lay before them. Strong defenses were necessary. Pursuant to the plan, Brigadier-General Henry B. Carrington, Colonel of the Eighteenth Regular Infan­try, was ordered with the second battalion of his regi­ment, about to become the Twenty-seventh Regular Infantry, to establish, organize and take command of what was known as the Mountain District. Lieutenant Grummond, after a hand-to-hand fight, was closely pressed by mounted Indians and was barely rescued. Search was instantly made for these two officers and the infantry sergeant, who had become separated from their command while chasing some scat­tered Indians. On the 19th of December, in this peaceful territory, the wood train was again attacked in force. He had the best horse in the command (one of the general's), and he covered the dis­tance between Lodge Trail Ridge and the fort with amazing swiftness. The officials in the Far East hugged their treaty, and refused to believe that a state of war existed; and, if it did exist, were disposed to censure the com­manding officer for provoking it. Our cookies are delicious. Game there was in plenty; water was clear and abundant. Directed by Don Taylor. Fire slowly, and keep men in hand. The massacre itself fills only one chapter out of 11, but it is remarkably detailed and by no means is this a criticism. In every barrack a non-com­missioned officer and two men kept watch throughout the night. These orders were delivered in a loud voice and were audible to many persons — women, officers, and men in the fort. A reconstructed stockade wall at Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming by Carol Highsmith. The officers and men were fast becoming undeceived as to the character of their expedition. A year later opportunity was given the sol­diers at Phil Kearney to exact a dreadful revenge from Red Cloud and his Sioux for the slaughter of their brave comrades. Powell efficiently performed his task. And it will always be so, sad though it may seem to many. That summer and fall Carrington strengthened and garrisoned Fort Reno and erected Forts Phil Kearny and Fort C.F. There was no certainty about the attacks, ex­cept an assurance that one was always due at any given moment. The women and chil­dren, especially those who had husbands and fathers with the first detachment, were almost crazed with terror. The rights of savagery have been compelled to yield to the demands of civilization, ethics to the contrary notwithstanding. The expedition was not conceived or planned for war. The casualties in the little command were two killed, five wounded. Banner, Wyoming  82832 The vast expanse of territory west of the hundredth meridian, extending from the Red River to the British Columbia boundary line, was at the time practically de­void of white settlements, except at Denver and Salt Lake, until the Montana towns were reached in the northwest. The Brule Sioux, under the lead of Spotted Tail, Standing Elk and others, favored the concession, and ever after remained faithful to the whites. Some of them, including Fetterman and Brown, "offered with eighty men to ride through the whole Sioux Nation!" 307-684-7629. Pickets were left on two commanding ridges, as signal observers, as the command moved forward. Casualties among the men were by no means rare. The following note was sent to Captain Ten Eyck: "Forty well-armed men, with three thousand rounds, ambulances, stores, etc., left before your courier came in. The next day was bitterly cold. It was com­monly agreed among the officers and men of regiments accompanied by women — and fully understood by the women as well — that in the last extremity the women were to be shot by their own friends, rather than to be allowed to fall into the hands of the savages; but no such apprehension attended this march. The area around the fort was the site of the Fetterman massacre and the Wagon Box Fight. He had been horribly tor­tured with a stake before he died, and the savages put on his clothing and danced on the prairie just out of range, in front of the party, which was too small to do more than stand on the defensive. The judgment of the veteran soldiers and the fron­tiersmen, who knew that to retreat was to be annihilat­ed, had caused a few to hold their ground and fight until they were without ammunition; then with gun-stocks, swords, bayonets, whatever came to hand, they battled until they were cut down. Late in the afternoon Ten Eyck's party returned to the fort with terrible tidings of appalling disaster. Since the United States began to be there never was such a post as Fort Philip Kearney, common­ly called Fort Phil Kearney From its establish­ment, in 1866, to its abandonment, some two years later, it … On December 21, 1866, a small war party, in a feint, made a typical attack on a wood train returning eastward from Piney Island to the fort. The youngster accomplished it by lying upon his back with feet braced against the bow, and the general squarely withdrew from the con­test, declining to follow the boy's ingenious artifice. He sees no sign of Captain Fetterman's command. Relief columns from the fort, which scattered the Indians, were too late to rescue Fetterman and his men. There were not enough men to garrison the three already in the field, much less to build a fourth. The Hayfield and Wagon Box Fights exacted a modicum of revenge for the Fetterman Massacre, but they did not deter hostilities. Carrington was replaced in January 1867. At first it was difficult to keep men within the limits of the camp; but stragglers who failed to return, and some who had been cut off, scalped and left for dead, but who had crawled back to die, convinced every one of the wisdom of the commanding officer's repeated orders and cautions. To abandon Fort Reno, or to remove it, was not prac­ticable. The warnings of Red Cloud had not prevented the fort’s establishment, but he soon put it under virtual siege. After waiting a sufficient time, he marched carefully and cautiously toward Peno Valley and to the bare lower ridge over which the road ran. It cannot be gainsaid that the Indians enjoyed a quasi-legal title to this land. The timber fields outside of the fort were naturally vulnerable with the men spreading out to cut down limber to be used for construction. Guards were changed half-hourly. Presently Sample, the general's own orderly, who had been sent with Ten Eyck, was seen galloping furiously down the opposite hill. Now, trails lead visitors to the sites of the conflicts, and interpretive signs explain the events from the perspectives of both the military and Indian groups. Carrington had done nothing to provoke war, but had simply carried out General Sherman's written instruc­tions, sent him as late as August, to "avoid a general war, until the army could be reorganized and increased; but he defended himself and command stoutly when attacked. Some of the officers, therefore, covertly sneer­ing at the caution of the commander, were burning for an opportunity to distinguish themselves on this account, and had practically determined to make or take one at the first chance. To chronicle the constant succession of petty skir­mishes would be wearisome; yet they often resulted in torture and loss of life on the part of the soldiers, al­though the Indians in most instances suffered the more severely. Few cartridge shells lay on the ground. There he came across evidences of a great battle. Although Carrington had conducted himself in every way as a brave, prudent, skillful, capable soldier, al­though his services merited reward, not censure, and demanded praise, not blame, the people and the au­thorities required a scapegoat. He dashed up to headquarters with a message from Ten Eyck, stating that "the valley on the other side of the ridge is filled with Indians, who are threatening him. With a natural spirit of restlessness they gathered their families, loaded their few household belongings into wagons, and in parties of varying sizes made their way westward. The general and his remaining officers then repaired to the observatory tower, field glasses in hand, and in apprehension of what fearful catastrophe they scarcely allowed themselves to imagine. By this time all warehouses were finished, and it was estimated that one large wood train would supply logs enough for the completion of the hospital, which alone needed attention. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read The Fetterman Massacre: Fort Phil Kearny and the Battle of the Hundred Slain. Colonel Henry Carrington runs a severe command but finds his authority challenged by … So necessary did he think the caution that he repeated it to Lieutenant Grum­mond, who, with the cavalry, followed the infantry out of the gate, the infantry, having less preparation to make, getting away first. As the fort was still far from completion, the logging operations were continued until mid-winter. The mountains abound­ed with bear, deer and other game in great variety. Southwest of Sullivant Hills was a high ridge called Lodge Trail Ridge, the main branch of the Piney Creek flowing between them, so that the water supply was at the eastern or "Water Gate" of the fort. I sounded the recall on his report, but in vain. The Indian loss was very heavy, but could not exactly be determined. The tragic events associated with Fort Phil Kearny, the Fetterman Massacre, and the Wagon Box Fight form one of the most dramatic chapters in the history of the Indian Wars. Repeated requests and appeals, both by letter and telegram, for reinforcements and supplies, and especially for mod­ern and serviceable weapons, had met with little con­sideration. It seems incredible to think that women should ac­company such an expedition, but no grave anticipations of trouble with the Indians were felt by any persons in authority at that time. Only the most watchful prudence, the most skillful management, and the most determined valor, prevented the annihilation of successive parties of emi­grants seeking the new and inviting land. I feel sure they fought until the last. Although every preparation for a desperate defense had been made, there were not enough men to man the walls. Fort Phil Kearny State Historic Site: Great, But Fetterman Massacre Site Is Better!!! Fetterman had disobeyed orders. - See 137 traveller reviews, 110 candid photos, and great deals for Sheridan, WY, at Tripadvisor. A Civilian Conservation Corp Cabin has been refurbished to depict the quarters of an Officer’s wife and a Non-Commissioned Officer’s Quarters. He was filled with anxiety as to the course of the fight on the other side of the ridge. Ammunition was running low. Last of the Indian Chiefs Geronimo Red Cloud Spott... Thomas Nast American Illustrator and Cartoonist, Prince Albert of Monaco as an Oceanographer, Philadelphia Zoological Park Fairmount Park. The post was isolated, the weather frightful. Men and women dressed in furs made from wolf skins tak­en from the hundreds of wolves which infested the outside butcher-field at night, and which were poisoned by the men for their fur. The work was by no means completed as it appears on the map, but it was enclosed, and there were enough buildings ready to house the actual garrison present, although the fort was planned for a thousand men, repeatedly promised but not fur­nished, while all the time both cavalry and the First Bat­talion of the Eighteenth were held within the peaceful limits of Fort Laramie's control. They narrowly escaped freezing to death. The commissioners, however, had dealt with only unimportant leaders of the bands along the Missouri River — not the people who really mattered. TO summarize the first six months of fighting, from the first of August to the close of the year, the Indians killed one hundred and fifty-four persons, including soldiers and citizens, wounded twenty more, and captured nearly seven hundred animals—cattle, mules, and horses. The U.S. military mission was intended to protect travelers on the Bozeman Trail. The mountains and hills were covered with pines. The sequel will appear later.

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